Results indicate that life cycle consumptive water usage for oil shale is significant with regard to water availability, especially for users located in the lower Colorado River Basin. Consequently, oil shale companies or governments may need to be boosted to create strategies to dismantle instability related with the water accessibility in the Colorado River Basin for oil shale expansion.
Mangmeechai, A., Jaramillo, P., Griffin, W., & Matthews, H. (2014). Life cycle consumptive water use for oil shale development and implications for water supply in the Colorado River Basin. International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 19(3), 677-687.